Footnotes for "Studies Suggesting That Induced Abortion May Increase the Feminization of Poverty" by Thomas W. Strahan, J.D.

  1. Diana Pearce, "The Feminization of Poverty: Women, Work, and Welfare," Urban and Social Change Review (February, 1978): 30.
  2. Arthur Blaustein, The American Promise (New Brunswick: Transaction Books, 1982), p. 8.
  3. Diana Pearce, "The Feminization of Ghetto Poverty," Society 21 (Nov./Dec. 1983): 70.
  4. United States Department of Commerce, Bureau of the Census, "Money Income and Poverty Status of Families and Persons in the United States: 1983," (Washington D.C.: Current Population Reports, Series P-60, no. 145, 1985).
  5. Pearce 1983, p. 70.
  6. See, for example, Emily M. Northrop, "The Feminization of Poverty: The Demographic Factor And the Composition of Economic Growth," Journal of Economic Issues, 24, no. 1 (March 1990): 145.
  7. Christopher Tietze, "Repeat Abortions -- Why More?" Family Planning Perspectives 10(5): 286 (Sept./Oct.1978); Henshaw, "Characteristics of U.S. Women Having Abortions, 1982-1983," Family Planning Perspectives 19, no. 1 (1987): 5.
  8. Stanley K. Henshaw and Jane Silverman, "The Characteristics and Prior Contraceptive Use of U.S. Abortion Patients," Family Planning Perspectives 20, no. 4 (July/Aug. 1988): 158.
  9. Kenneth D. Kochanek, "Induced Termination of Pregnancy: Reporting States, 1988," Monthly Vital Statistics Report 39, no. 12 (30 April 30 1991): 1-31.
  10. Theodore Joyce, "The Social and Economic Correlates of Pregnancy Resolution Among Adolescents in New York City: A Multivariate Analysis," American Journal of Public Health 78, no. 6 (June 1988): 626.
  11. Rena Bobrowsky, "Incidence of Repeated Abortion, Second Trimester Abortion, Contraceptive Use, and Illness within a Teenage Population," Ph.D. Thesis, University of Southern California (1986).
  12. Mary Jo Shepard and Michael B. Bracken, "Contraceptive Practice and Repeat Induced Abortion: An Epidemiological Investigation," Journal of Biosocial Science 11 (1979): 289-302.
  13. Michael B. Bracken and Stanislav K. Kasl, "First and Repeat Abortions: A Study of Decision-Making and Delay," Journal of Biosocial Science 7 (1975): 374-491.
  14. See note 11.
  15. Ellen Freeman, "Emotional Distress Patterns among Women Having First or Repeat Abortions," Obstetrics and Gynecology 55, no. 5 (May, 1980): 630.
  16. Statistical Abstracts of the United States (U.S. Department of Commerce, Bureau of the Census, 1994).
  17. Lee Ellen Gsellman, "Physical and Psychological Injury in Women Following Abortion: Akron Pregnancy Services Survey," Association for Interdisciplinary Research Newsletter 5, no. 4 (Sept./Oct. 1993): 1-8.
  18. Kathleen N. Franco, Marijo B. Tamburrino, Nancy B. Campbell, "Psychological Profile of Dysphoric Women Post-Abortion," Journal of the American Medical Women's Association 44, no. 113 (1989).
  19. Gail B. Williams, "Induced Elective Abortion and Perinatal Grief," Ph.D. Thesis, New York University (1991).
  20. See, for example, Christopher R. Moore, "Husband Mourns Outcome of Wife's Painful Decision," American Medical News (14 October 1991): 24
  21. See, for example, Thomas Strahan, "Portraits of Post-Abortive Fathers Devastated by the Abortion Experience," Association for Interdisciplinary Research Newsletter 7, no. 3 (Nov./Dec. 1991): 1-8.
  22. Bruce D. Blumberg, Mitchell S. Golbus, and Karl H. Hanson, "The Psychological Sequelae of Abortion Performed for a Genetic Indication," American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology 122, no. 7 (1 August 1975): 799.
  23. Jeannette Vought, Post-Abortion Trauma: 9 Steps to Recovery (Grand Rapids, Mich.: Zondervan), pp. 131-43.
  24. Nancy Heller Horowitz, "Adolescent Mourning Reactions to Infant and Fetal Loss," Social Casework (November, 1978): 551-59.
  25. Linda Francke, The Ambivalence of Abortion (New York: Randon House, 1978), pp. 190-91.
  26. Ibid., p. 61.
  27. Ibid., p. 65.
  28. See note 18.
  29. Ronald K. Somers, "Risk of Admission to Psychiatric Institutions Among Danish Women Who Experienced Induced Abortions," Ph.D. Thesis, University of California, Los Angeles (1979).
  30. Pirkko Niemela, Paivi Lehtinen, and Lauri Rauramo, "The First Abortion--And the Last? A Study of the Personality Factors Underlying the Repeated Failure of Contraception," International Journal of Gynaecology and Obstetrics, 19 (1981): 193.
  31. Mogens Osler, Janine M. Morgall, Birgitte Jensen, and Merete Osler, "Repeat Abortion in Denmark," Danish Medical Bulletin 39, no. 1 (February 1992): 89.
  32. Ann A. Levin, Stephen C. Schoenbaum, Richard R. Monson, Phillip G. Stubblefield, and Kenneth J. Ryan, "Association of Induced Abortion with Subsequent Pregnancy Loss," Journal of the American Medical Association 243, no. 24 (27 June 1980): 2495.
  33. Larry G. Peppers, "Grief and Elective Abortion: Implications for the Counselor," in Kenneth J. Doka, Disenfranchised Grief, Recognizing Hidden Sorrow, (Lexington, Mass.: Lexington Books, 1989), pp. 135-46.
  34. See note 32.
  35. Margaret T. Mandelson, Christopher B. Maden, and Janet R. Daling, "Low Birth Weight in Relation to Multiple Induced Abortions," American Journal of Public Health 82, no. 3 (March, 1992): 391.
  36. J. Yerushalmy, "The Relationship of Parents' Cigarette Smoking to the Outcome of Pregnancy," American Journal of Epidemiology 93, no. 6 (1971): 443.
  37. Richard W. Coan, "Personality Variables Associated with Cigarette Smoking," Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 26, no. 1 (1973): 86-104.
  38. C. Murray Parkes and R. J. Brown, "Health after Bereavement: A Controlled Study," Psychosomatic Medicine 34 (1972): 449-461.
  39. D. Schubert, "Personality Implications of Cigarette Smoking among College Students," Journal of Consulting Psychology 23 (1959): 276; W.E. Walters, "Smoking and Neuroticism," British Journal of Preventative and Social Medicine 25 (1971): 162.
  40. J. Cheesare, J. Pascoe, and E. Baugh, "Smoking During Pregnancy and Child Maltreatment: Is There an Association?" International Journal for Biosocial Research 8, no. 1 (1986): 37-42
  41. Susan Harlap and Michael Davies, "Characteristics of Pregnant Women Reporting Previous Induced Abortions," Bulletin of the World Health Organization, 52, (1975): 49; "Gestation, Birth-Weight and Spontaneous Abortion in Pregnancy after Induced Abortion: Report of the Collaborative Study by the World Health Organization Task Force on Sequelae of Abortion," The Lancet (20 January 1975), pp. 142-45.
  42. David Reardon, Aborted Women: Silent No More (Westchester, Illinois: Crossway Books, 1987). See, for example, pp. 79 and 146.
  43. Ibid.
  44. Anne Speckhard, "Psycho-Social Stress Following Abortion," Ph.D. Thesis, University of Minnesota (1985).
  45. Vought, pp. 111-112
  46. See note 17.
  47. Kazuo Yamaguchi and Denise B. Kandel, "Drug Use and Other Determinants of Premarital Pregnancy and Its Outcome: A Dynamic Analysis of Competing Life Events," Journal of Marriage and the Family 49 (May 1987): 257.
  48. David Reardon, "Preliminary Results of the Elliot Institute's 1990 Abortion Survey," Elliot Institute for Social Science Research (Springfield, Ill., 1990).
  49. Albert D. Klassen and Sharon C. Wilsnack, "Sexual Experience and Drinking Among Women in a U.S. National Survey," Archives of Sexual Behavior 15 (5) 1986: 363; Wilsnack, Wilsnack and Klassen, "Women's Drinking and Drinking Patterns from a 1981 National Survey," American Journal of Public Health 74, no. 11 (Nov. 1984): 1231.
  50. Elizabeth R. Morrissey and Mark A. Schuckit, "Stressful Life Events and Alcohol Problems among Women Seen at a Detoxification Center," Journal of Studies on Alcohol 39, no. 9 (1978): 1559.
  51. Moria Plant, Women, Drinking and Pregnancy (London: Tavistock Publications, 1985), pp. 59-69
  52. Jan W. Kuzman and David G. Kissinger, "Patterns of Alcohol and Cigarette Use in Pregnancy," Neurobehavioral Toxicology and Terotology 3 (1981): 211.
  53. Deborah A. Frank, Barry Zuckerman, and Hortensia Amaro, "Cocaine Use during Pregnancy: Prevalence and Correlates," Pediatrics 82, no. 6 (Dec. 1988): 888-95.
  54. Amy S. Oro and Suzanne D. Dixon, "Perinatal Cocaine and Methamphetamine Exposure: Maternal and Neonatal Correlates," Journal of Pediatrics 111 (1987): 571.
  55. Hortensia Amaro, Barry Zuckerman, and Howard Cabral, "Drug Use among Adolescent Mothers," Pediatrics 84, no. 1 (July 1989): 144.
  56. Barbara Mensch and Denise B. Kandel, "Drug Use as a Risk Factor for Premarital Teen Pregnancy and Abortion in a National Sample of Young White Women," Demography 29, no. 3 (Aug. 1992): 409.
  57. See note 50.
  58. "Surgeon General's Advisory on Alcohol and Pregnancy," Food and Drug Administration Drug Bulletin, Department of Health and Human Services, 11, no. 2 (1981).
  59. Lucille Newman and Stephen L. Buka, "Every Child a Learner: Reducing Risks of Learning Impairment during Pregnancy and Infancy," Education Commission of the States, Denver, Col. (1990).