Footnotes for "Female Objects of Semantic Dehumanization and Violence," by William Brennan, Ph.D.

  1. P. Thomas, Indian Women Through the Ages (Bombay: Asia Publishing House, 1964): 263, 295-96.
  2. Benjamin Walker, The Hindu World: An Encyclopedic Survey of Hinduism, 2 vols. (New York: Frederick A. Praeger, 1968), 2: 464.
  3. Susan Brownmiller, Against Our Will: Men, Women and Rape (New York: Simon and Schuster, 1975): 61.
  4. Vietnam Veterans Against the War, The Winter Soldier Investigation: An Inquiry into American War Crimes (Boston: Beacon Press, 1971): 29.
  5. Maurine Beasley, "Court Clears Captain of Hiding Viet Atrocity," Washington Post, 31 July 1971, A3.
  6. Federal Bureau of Investigation, U.S. Department of Justice, Crime in the United States: Uniform Crime Reports for the United States (Washington, D.C.: U.S. Government Printing Office, 1988): 6, 13-15.
  7. Julia O'Faolain and Lauro Martines, eds., Not in God's Image (New York: Harper & Row, 1973): 37.
  8. R. Emerson Dobash and Russell P. Dobash, "Wives: The 'Appropriate' Victims of Marital Violence," Victimology: An International Journal 2 (1977-1978): 429.
  9. O'Faolain and Martines, p. 175.
  10. George Macaulay Trevelyan, History of England, 3rd ed. (London: Longsman, Green, 1952): 260.
  11. Frances Power Cobbe, "Wife-Torture in England," The Contemporary Review, April 1878: 79.
  12. Ibid., 73.
  13. Dobash and Dobash, pp. 430-31.
  14. "Wife-Beating Declines," USA Today Newsview, April 1986, p. 6.
  15. Haig Bosmajian, The Language of Oppression (Washington, D.C.: Public Affairs Press, 1974): 90.
  16. Simone de Beauvoir, The Second Sex, trans. H.M. Parshley (New York: Vintage Books, Random House, 1974): xviii.
  17. Marvin A. Breslow, ed., The Political Writings of John Knox: The First Blast of the Trumpet Against the Monstrous Regiment of Women and Other Selected Works (London and Toronto: Associated University Presses, 1985): 44-45, 43, 45, 52.
  18. "The Homily on Marriage," in Katherine Usher Henderson and Barbara F. McManus, Half Humankind: Contexts and Texts of the Controversy about Women in England, 1540-1640 (Urbana and Chicago: University of Illinois Press, 1985): 78.
  19. William Whately, "A Bride Bush," in Henderson and McManus, p. 78.
  20. The Marquis de Sade, The Complete Justine, Philosophy in the Bedroom, and Other Writings, comp. and trans. Richard Seaver and Austryn Wainhouse (New York: Grove Press, 1965): 647.
  21. Peter Smithers, The Life of Joseph Addison (New York: Clarendon Press, Oxford University Press, 1954): 353.
  22. Arthur Schopenhauer, Essays: From the Parerga and Paralipomena: Studies in Pessimism, trans. T. Bailey Saunders (London: George Allen and Unwin, 1951): 65, 68.
  23. Ibid., p. 69, 75.
  24. Otto Weininger, Sex and Character (New York: AMS Press, 1975; reprint of 1906 ed. published by William Heinemann, London, and G.P. Putnam's Sons, New York): 118, 188-89, 148-49, 195, 145-46, 196, 204.
  25. Ibid., p. 252, 279.
  26. Charles Strachey, ed., The Letters of the Earl of Chesterfield to His Son, 2 vols. (London: Methuen, 1924), 1:261-62.
  27. Schopenhauer, Essays, 63-64, 68.
  28. Karl Vogt, Lectures on Man, His Place in Creation, and in the History of the Earth (London, 1864): 183.
  29. Miss M.A. Hardaker, "Science and the Woman Question," The Popular Science Monthly 20 (March 1882): 578.
  30. Ibid., p. 583.
  31. George J. Romanes, "Mental Differences Between Men and Women," The Nineteenth Century 21 (May 1887): 654-655.
  32. Herbert Spencer, The Study of Sociology (New York: D. Appleton, 1896): 374.
  33. H.R. Hays, The Dangerous Sex: The Myth of Feminine Evil (New York: G.P. Putnam's Sons, 1964): 14-15.
  34. Marquis de Sade, p. 647.
  35. Diana E.H. Russell with Laura Lederer, "Questions We Get Asked Most Often," in Take Back the Night: Women on Pornography, ed. Laura Lederer (New York: William Morrow, 1980): 24.
  36. Vietnam Veterans Against War, p. 14.
  37. Weininger, p. 286, 297, 187.
  38. Pauline Reage, The Story of O (New York: Grove Press, 1965).
  39. Diane Scully and Joseph Marolla, "'Riding the Bull at Gilley's': Convicted Rapists Describe the Rewards of Rape," Social Problems 32 (February 1985): 260.
  40. Nancy Gibbs, "Wilding in the Night," Time, 8 May 1989, 20-21; "Rape of Jogger in Park Aggravates New York's Racial Tension," St. Louis Post-Dispatch, 30 April 1989, p. 6A.
  41. Frank Tannenbaum, Slave and Citizen: The Negro in America (New York: Alfred A. Knopf, 1947): 80.
  42. "The Breeder Woman," in Black Women in White America: A Documentary History, ed. Gerda Lerner (New York: Vintage Books, Random House, 1973): 47-48.
  43. The Suppressed Book About Slavery (1864; reprint ed., New York: Arno Press and the New York Times, 1968): 175.
  44. Tannenbaum, p. 82.
  45. Kate Millett, Sexual Politics (Garden City, New York: Doubleday, 1970): 119.
  46. Juvenal, The Sixteen Satires, trans. Peter Green (New York: Penguin Classics, 1982): Satire 6, p. 137.
  47. Ben Jonson, Epicoene, ed. Edward Partridge (New Haven and London: Yale University Press, 1971): 112.
  48. Henry Miller, Tropic of Capricorn (New York: Grove Press, 1961): 183.
  49. Henry Miller, Sexus (New York: Grove Press, 1965): 229, 181, 287, 126, 304.
  50. Norman Mailer, Advertisements for Myself (New York: Signet, New American Library, 1960): 438, 449.
  51. Norman Mailer, An American Dream (New York: Dial Press, 1965): 34, 43.
  52. Norman Mailer, The Presidential Papers (New York: G.P. Putnam's Sons, 1963): 131.
  53. Susan Griffin, Pornography and Silence: Culture's Revenge Against Nature (New York: Harper & Row, 1981): 24-25.
  54. Ibid., pp. 25-26.
  55. Conversations with and material furnished by Dr. Judith A. Reisman. For an extensive account of cartoons depicting sex between wives and animals and other forms of sexual debasement, see the three-volume 1987 Reisman Report entitled Images of Children, Crime and Violence in Playboy, Penthouse and Hustler Magazines. This research was sponsored by the Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention (OJJDP), U.S. Dept. of Justice, Project No. 84-JN-AX-K007, and conducted at the American University, Washington, D.C., from February 1984 to November 1985.
  56. O'Faolain and Martines, p. 39.
  57. Ibid., p. 121.
  58. Ibid., p. 209.
  59. O'Faolain and Martines, p. 39.
  60. Joseph Swetnam, "The Arraignment of Lewd, Idle, Froward, and Unconstant Women (1615)", in Henderson and McManus, p. 209.
  61. Hays, Dangerous Sex, 201.
  62. R. Emerson Dobash and Russell Dobash, Violence Against Wives: A Case Against the Patriarchy (New York: Free Press, 1979): 55.
  63. Cobbe, p. 64.
  64. Swetnam, pp. 190, 205, 202.
  65. Marquis de Sade, p. 690.
  66. Hays, p. 253.
  67. Miller, p. 20.
  68. Rene Guyon, Sexual Freedom, trans. Eden and Cedar Paul (New York: Alfred A. Knopf, 1958): xi, 214, 208, 212, 198, 207.
  69. Ibid., pp. 207, 263, 214.
  70. De Beauvoir, p. 805, 539, 510.
  71. Ibid., pp. 123, 481, 777.
  72. Ibid., pp. 211, 496, 509, 532, 534.
  73. Hesiod, Theogony, trans. Norman O. Brown (Indianapolis: Bobbs-Merrill, 1953): 70.
  74. Hugh Lloyd-Jones, Females of the Species: Semonides on Women (Park Ridge, NJ: Noyes Press, 1975): 54.
  75. Breslow, pp. 66, 71.
  76. O'Faolain and Martines, p. 210.
  77. Aristotle, Generation of Animals, revised and reprinted ed., trans. A.L. Peck (London: William Heinemann; Cambridge: Loeb Classical Library, Harvard University Press, 1953): 459, 461.
  78. Pat Jalland and John Hooper, Women from Birth to Death: The Female Life Cycle in Britain 1830-1914 (Atlantic Highlands, NJ: Humanities Press International, 1986): 33.
  79. J. McGregor Allan, "On the Real Differences in the Minds of Men and Women," Journal of the Anthropological Society of London 7 (1869), cc.
  80. Havelock Ellis, Man and Woman: A Study of Human Secondary Sexual Characters, 5th ed. rev. & enlarged (New York: Charles Scribner's, 1914): 283.
  81. Hays, p. 39.
  82. Sigmund Freud, "Some Psychological Consequences of the Anatomical Distinctions Between the Sexes" (1925), Collected Papers, ed. James Strachey (New York: Basic Books, 1959), vol. 5, 192.
  83. Henry Miller, Tropic of Cancer (New York: Grove Press, 1961): 140, 249.
  84. Ellis, p. 283.
  85. Ibid., pp. 283-284.
  86. Allan, pp. cxcix, cxcviii.
  87. De Beauvoir, p. 168.
  88. Hays, p. 41.
  89. Ibid.
  90. Quoted in de Beauvoir, p. 168.
  91. Robert Barnes, "Lumleian Lecture on the Convulsive Diseases of Women," The Lancet, 12 April 1873, pp. 514-15.
  92. Hays, p. 40.
  93. Ibid.
  94. Ibid., p. 41.
  95. De Beauvoir, p.168.
  96. O'Faolain and Martines, pp. 34-35.
  97. William Shakespeare, The Taming of the Shrew, ed. H.J. Oliver (New York: Oxford University Press, 1982): 175.
  98. Quoted in Sisterhood is Powerful: An Anthology of Writings from the Women's Liberation Movement, ed. Robin Morgan (New York: Random House, 1970): 34.
  99. Quoted in Weininger, p. 342.
  100. Brownmiller, pp. 17-18, 163.
  101. Ibid., p. 125.
  102. Diana Scully and Joseph Marolla, "Convicted Rapists' Vocabulary of Motives: Excuses and Justifications," Social Problems 31 (June 1984): 542.
  103. Diana Scully, "Convicted Rapists' Perceptions of Self and Victim: Role Taking and Emotions," Gender & Society 2 (June 1988): 209.
  104. Scully and Marolla, 1985 p. 261.
  105. Cobbe, p. 62.
  106. Dobash and Dobash, 1979, p. 94.
  107. "Men Tell Why They Batter," Donahue, Transcript #2777, September 19, 1989, pp. 4, 7.
  108. Dobash and Dobash, 1979, p. 45.
  109. John Wilson, History of the Suppression of Infanticide in Western India (Bombay: Smith, Taylor and Co., 1855): 33-34.
  110. Hays, p. 124.
  111. See Asma el Dareer, Woman Why Do You Weep? (London: Zed Press, 1982), Nawal El Saadawi, The Hidden Face of Eve: Women in the Arab World, (London: Zed press, 1980), and Hanny Lightfoot-Klein, Prisoners of Ritual: An Odyssey into Female Genital Circumcision in Africa (Binghamton, NY: Harrington Park Press, 1989).
  112. Suppressed Book About Slavery, p. 153.
  113. Ibid., p. 144.
  114. Aristotle, pp. 101, 109, 111.
  115. Weininger, p. 187.
  116. Ibid., pp. 292-293, 204, 293, 213, 320.
  117. Ibid., p. 292.
  118. Millett, p. 313.
  119. Griffin, pp. 3, 49.
  120. Laura Lederer, "Then and Now: An Interview with a Former Pornography Model," in Lederer, Take Back the Night, 66, 64.
  121. Miller, Tropic of Capricorn, p. 186, 199.
  122. Brownmiller, p. 394.
  123. Miller, Sexus, p. 117.
  124. Linda Lovelace with Mike McGrady, Ordeal: An Autobiography (Secaucus, NJ: Citadel Press, 1980): 45, 91.
  125. Robin Morgan, "Theory and Practice: Pornography and Rape," in Lederer, Take Back the Night, 139.
  126. Hays, p. 200.
  127. Ibid., p. 194.
  128. Ibid., p. 200.
  129. De Beauvoir, p. 115.
  130. Henry Miller, Black Spring (New York: An Evergreen Black Cat Book, Grove Press, 1963): 144.
  131. Henry Miller, Two Books, Quiet Days in Clichy and the World of Sex (New York: Grove Press, 1978): 110.
  132. "Steamy TV," Nightline, Transcript, Show #2029, 2 March 1989, p. 4.
  133. William Brennan, Dehumanizing the Vulnerable: When Word Games Take Lives (Chicago: Loyola University Press, 1995).